Wednesday, September 26, 2007

The Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom is the kingdom that follows the First Intermediate Period. One hundred years after the Old kingdom fell the Middle Kingdom arose. During the Middle Kingdom they had 2 different dynasties. Also during the Middle Kingdom, kings accomplished many things including the repairing of irrigation projects and the writing of texts.(Romer 216)

The Middle Kingdom began with the 11th dynasty, when Mentuhotep Nebhepetre II reunited upper and lower Egypt. The great monument of this time was Mentuhotep's mortuary complex. It was built against the mountains of Thebes, the capital of the time. Mentuhotep's mortuary was centered on a terraced temple with pillared porticoes. Mentuhotep ruled for 51 years. During this time he made Egypt a very strong country again but do to some family problems their dynasty fell and a new dynasty began.

During the time of the Middle Kingdom trade picked up by a dramatic incline. Mines that produce gold, and quarries, were now dug up for projects. Another change was the fact that now pyramids were being built like they were during the Old Kingdom. They built them for burial purposes. Many projects were constructed during the Middle Kingdom. Amenemhet built the Wall of the Princes. Senusret I built a 13 fortresses from the Second Cataract up along the Nile to protect them against invaders. (Lassieur 50)

The 12th Dynasty started with Amenemhet I's rule. Amenemhet moved the capital from Thebes to a new city called Itj-tawi. The Climax of the 12th Dynasty was when Sesostris III brought political, economical and cultural climax to the Country.

The Middle Kingdom was the first Kingdom after a very destructive Intermediate Period. It was a very accomplished Kingdom and many things were improved during this time. After the Middle Kingdom came the Second Intermediate Period.

Lassieur, Allison. The Ancient Egyptians. San Diego, Ca: Lucent Books, 2001.

Romer, John. People of the Nile. New York: Crown Publishers, 1982.