Thursday, October 23, 2008

Failures of the Crusades

One of the biggest failures of the Crusades was very obvious in my opinion. If you have to recapture a city, or try to, shoots up a giant warning of failures to come. After the First Crusade, the Second Crusade began to recapture the city of Edessa. This is just one of the failures shown throughout the Crusades.

The Second Crusade began to recapture the city of Edessa in 1147. It was called for by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux and led by two kings. Louis VII, King of France, and Conrad III, the German Emperor, led this crusade. They so poorly managed this crusade that nothing at all was accomplished.

During the Third Crusade Saladin, the Muslim leader, recaptured Jerusalem. This led to the German Emperor Frederick I, called "Barbarossa" {Red Beard}; Philip Augustus, King of France; and King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England to become leaders of the Third Crusade. This Crusade also ended in failure.

So I guess one could say another event that showed the failures was the fact that more than one crusade was needed. The First Crusade was the only Crusade that actually succeeded. After that there were only failures and this led to even more failures and many more deaths.

In conclusion, one of the biggest events, that led to failures, was the fact that they had recapture city's so many times. After the First Crusade failures were unstoppable. Nothing truly was accomplished after this and many lives were lost.

McKitterick, Rosamond. Times Medieval World. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2003.

Guy, John. Medieval Life. London: Ticktock Media Limited, 2001.

Sunday, October 5, 2008

Saint Bernard of Clairvaux and the Second Crusade

Saint Bernard of Clairvaux was born in the year 1090 and died August 20 1153. He was a French monk during the Crusades who's father was a knight and his mother was a daughter of nobility. Bernard sought to reform Cistercian monastic order.

Saint Bernard was the main force for the Second Crusade. He was a Cistercian monk who had a great passion for the Second Crusade which was ultimately a failure. In 1115 he founded a new Cistercian Abbey at Clairvaux, which at its largest, had 700 monks. 68 other houses had become due to this Abbey at Clairvaux.

Bernard preached of the Second Crusade and many, thousands, of men became crusaders. Due to the loss of Edessa, to the Muslims, Bernard was very enthusiastic about the Second Crusade. His enthusiasm caught on and for the first time western Monarchs, including King Louis VII of France and King Conrad III of Germany came to the east to see for themselves.

King Louis and King Conrad led the Second Crusade after hearing of Saint Bernard. Nothing was accomplished in this Crusade although many still went on into Asia Minor. Although nothing was achieved during this Crusade, many things came from Saint Bernard's success.

Saint Bernard died August 20, 1153, in Clairvaux, Champagne, France. He was a remarkable speaker and a very driven Monk. The Second Crusade was mainly a result of his perseverance. Saint Bernard made a great impact upon Cistercian Monasticism.

McKitterick, Rosamond. Times Medieval World. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2003.

Guy, John. Medieval Life. London: Ticktock Media Limited, 2001.